Wednesday, February 3, 2010

You have to know the 45 medical knowledge

1. The normal heart rate: 75 times per minute

Healthy adults at rest, the heart rate an average of 75 times per minute. Normal range, 60-100 times per minute. Adult resting heart rate over 100 beats / minute, for tachycardia; less than 60 beats / minutes in order to bradycardia. Heart rate may be due to age, gender and other factors change, such as the temperature is increased by 1 ℃, heart rate, speed up 12-20 times / minute, women slightly faster heart rate, heart rate than men, athlete's heart rate slow.

2. Normal body temperature: 36.3 ℃ -37.2 ℃ (port measurement method)

Clinically, usually oral temperature and rectal temperatures and axillary temperature to represent the body temperature. I measurement method (sublingual 5 minutes) normal to 36.3 ℃ -37.2 ℃; axillary measurement method (armpit clamp 5 minutes) to 36 ℃ -37 ℃; rectal measurement method (Table header coating lubricant into the anus 5 minutes) to 36.5 ℃ -37.7 ℃. In a day and night, the body temperature cyclical fluctuations in the early morning of 2-6, when the general minimum highest at 13-18 pm, but the fluctuations of no more than 1 ℃. As long as the body temperature does not exceed 37.3 ℃, even if normal.

3. Hemoglobin (HbB): adult males (120-160 g / l), adult female (110-150 g / l)

Clinically, anemia with hemoglobin values of Suketame determine basis. Normal adult hemoglobin value of 90-110 g / l with mild anemia; 60-90 g / l moderate anemia; 30-60 g / l is a severe anemia; white blood cell count (WBC) :4-10 * (10 9 power) a / l

White blood cell count greater than 10 * (10 9 th power) cells / l, said an increase in white blood cells, less than 10 * (10 9 th power) cells / l, said leukopenia. In general, acute bacterial infection or inflammation, white blood cell can be increased; viral infection, white blood cells will be reduced. Cold, fever may be caused by viral infection, may also be caused by bacterial infection, a clear cause, guiding clinical treatment, doctors usually let you go to check a routine blood test.

5. Platelet count (PLT) :100-300 * (10 9 th power) cells / l

Platelets is committed to uphold the integrity of vessel wall function. When the platelet count decreased to 50 * (10 9 th power) cells / l below, especially as low as 30 * (10 9 th power) cells / l, when, it may cause bleeding, the skin may appear petechia ecchymosis. Low platelets are not often appear on the skin, "Wu Qing block" need not be too nervous, because in addition to platelet factors, vascular wall factors, coagulation factors, as well as physiological factors will lead to "Wu Qing block" from occurring, go hematological treatment, clearly defined.

6. Urine :1000-2000 ml / 24 hours

24-hour urine "more than 2500 milliliters of urine. Physiological polyuria seen too much or drinking water after application of diuretics. Pathological polyuria seen in diabetes mellitus, diabetes insipidus, renal tubular disease.

7.24 hours nocturnal urine volume: 500 ml

Nocturnal enuresis refers to the next day morning at 8 am to 8 pm The total urine output, usually 500 ml, urinate 2-3 times. If the nocturnal urine volume of more than during the day, and the frequency of urination increased significantly, as an increase in nocturia. Physiological nocturnal increase in association with drinking too much before going to bed-related; pathological nocturia increased concentration of renal dysfunction often manifested early signs of kidney dysfunction. In addition to renal dysfunction other than nocturia may also be an increase in prostate hyperplasia, older women, uterine prolapse, urinary tract infections, diabetes, mental stress and other reasons.

8. Number of urine red blood cell (RBC) normal 0-3 / high power field

Urine red blood cell "3 / high power field, known as microscopic hematuria.

Urine red blood cell in urine white blood cell count (WBC) normal values: 5 / high power field, known as microscopic pyuria. If a large number of white blood cells in urine, mostly for urinary tract infections, such as pyelonephritis, renal tuberculosis, cystitis, or urinary tract infection.

10. Sperm survival time: 72 hours. Egg survival time: 24 hours.

Rhythm rhythm unsafe encounter trouble, in addition to ovulation than wrong, there is a factor that can not be ignored: As the sperm in the female body can survive 3 days old, so even than the day of ovulation, as long as in the conception period (4 days before ovulation to 2 days after ovulation), women are still likely to conceive.

11. Two blood group systems: ABO and Rh

ABO blood group system in the blood is divided into four types: A type, B-, AB-and O-. Rh blood group system will be blood is divided into two types: Rh-positive type and Rh-negative type. In Caucasian, 85% of Rh-positive blood type, 15% for the Rh negative blood type. In China, 99% of people are Rh-positive blood type, Rh-negative blood are rare.

  A-A:A、O ; A-B:A、B、O、AB ; A-AB:A、B、AB ; A-O:A、O

  B-B:B、O ; B-AB:A、B、AB ; B-O:B、O ; O-AB:A、B

OO: O; AB-AB: A, B, AB if a person both AB-type, for which she would not be O-. If both sides are O, then the baby can only be O-.

12. Body mass index (BMI) = body weight (kg) / height (in meters) squared :18.5-23.9 is normal

13. Body mass index, the best weight-loss rate: 1-2 kg per month weight loss

Overweight people should lose weight step by step under the guidance of a doctor. To lose weight too fast, too fast will lead to weight rebound, anorexia, anemia, malnutrition, irregular menstruation, hair loss, memory loss, bone stretch their legs and other adverse reactions.

14. Waist: Male ≥ 90 cm, women ≥ 80 centimeters abdominal obesity

Accumulation of abdominal fat, waist circumference is a judge, several abdominal obesity (also known as "apple-type obesity") indicators. Abdominal obesity is now considered a coronary heart disease, metabolic syndrome, a major risk factor. If the body mass index has not yet reached the degree of obesity, but waist circumference has been exceeded to show that you belong to abdominal obesity. Abdominal obesity than body fat are more dangerous, more susceptible to coronary heart disease, diabetes, a "favor."

15. Obesity signal: one-month weight gain of 1.5 kilograms

In the weight just started rising in the "long" and when the timely detection of, and to take measures to lose weight, often receive significant effect. The following conditions, often prompts a weight gain trend: a slight movement on the breath, fatigue powerlessness, whenever they sweat, there lower back, hip and knee pain.

16. Blood pressure values: normal, systolic blood pressureDiabetes Diagnostic Criteria: Fasting blood glucose "7.0 cents Mount / l, and (or) 2-hour postprandial blood glucose" Mount 11.1 cents / liter

If you meet the above criteria, they have been in patients with diabetes should be under the guidance of a doctor hypoglycemic therapy, do not because of diabetes, "do not feel anything" and refused medical treatment. If you do not exercise proper control of blood sugar,全身各器官will be involved.

18. Diabetes exclusion criteria: fasting plasma glucose "6.1 cents Mount / l, and (or) 2-hour postprandial blood glucose" 7.8 cents Mount / l

19. Pre-diabetes diagnostic criteria: 6.1 cents Mount / l 11.1 cents Mount / l

If the blood sugar is higher than normal, but have not yet reached the diagnostic criteria of diabetes shows that are in pre-diabetes, if not alert and do not actively intervene in, and soon will develop diabetes.

20. Diabetes warning signal: fasting blood glucose "5.6 cents Mount / l

When the fasting blood glucose exceeds the standards, the incidence of diabetes will increase significantly, ischemic heart disease such as cardiovascular time and the incidence of diabetic retinopathy significantly increased.

21. Glycated hemoglobin normal value ≤ 6.5%

Glycated hemoglobin is the hemoglobin inside red blood cells and glucose combined product would reflect the first three months of blood micro-million pounds a year a blood glucose level, blood glucose control is good or bad to reflect the most effective and most reliable indicators. Patients with diabetes should be glycosylated hemoglobin ≤ 7.0% as a treatment for one of the standards compliance, the elderly may be slightly relaxed criteria (7.0% -7.5%), glycated hemoglobin of young people should be controlled at ≤ 6.5% or less. For every 1% decline in glycated hemoglobin, diabetes-related complications can be reduced by 20%.

22. Bone mineral density in the maximum period :30-40-year-old

Each person's life in the highest bone mineral density (peak bone mass) generally appear in a period of 30-40 years old, affected by nutrition after birth, developmental and genetic factors such as the impact of high and low peak bone mass. Men generally from 40 years of age, females usually start from the age of 35, peak bone mass began to decrease after 5 years post-menopausal women, men 70 years of age, the fastest loss of bone mass. A high peak bone mass, their bones containing calcium high occurrence of osteoporosis in old age after a lesser extent, time later. Therefore, before the age of 40 who should grasp the opportunity to ensure adequate nutrition and a daily calcium intake, and actively participate in physical exercise, and strive to improve their peak bone mass.

23. 25 grams per person per day is appropriate oil

When cooking is best to use vegetable oil, vegetable oil that contains a heart-healthy unsaturated fatty acids more. As the oil heat is relatively high, so dosage should not be too much, otherwise the excess calories will translate into body fat, fat people.

24. Each day the amount of not more than six grams of salt

Salt-induced hypertension is a significant risk factor for heavy flavor should pay particular attention. The amount of salt per day should also include soy sauce, pickles, salted egg, etc. in salinity.

25. Eat 400-500 grams of vegetables

Useful for more than half a day of vegetables should be colored vegetables, such as green leafy vegetables, red and yellow vegetables. Vegetables rich in vitamins, minerals, fiber, calories are critically low.

26. Daily intake of calcium: Healthy adults, 600-800 mg

Chinese Nutrition Society recommended calcium supply: Adult 600-800 mg / day, pregnant women, 1200 mg / day, lactating 2000 mg / day. Milk and dairy products rich in calcium absorption rate. Aquatic products, dried small shrimps, seaweed, soy products more calcium. To facilitate the absorption of calcium, vitamin D supplement should be properly and more sun.

27. 1500 milliliters of drinking water for more than a day

Water intake including daily intake of tea, soup, fruit and other foods of the total water content. Drinking water is very particular about the way his mouth thirsty have water, not a lot of water, should drink boiled water or tea, do not use sugary drinks instead of water.

28. Stroke rehabilitation best time: 3 days after cerebral infarction, cerebral hemorrhage after 5-7 days

29. Alanyl transaminase (GPT or ALT) normal alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) stroke thrombolysis "time window": 3 hours after onset of

Cerebral infarction occurred, if within 3 hours after the onset to intravenous thrombolysis in the treatment and to maximize blood vessels to open the blockage to save dying brain cells, are effective in reducing the incidence of complications and sequelae.

30.18-45 years old, Myopia 1200, with active eye disease (such as inflammation, glaucoma, dry eye, etc.); central corneal thickness of B-ultrasonic examination: 40 years of age, once a year

Ultrasonography has a non-invasive, no radiation, the advantages of convenient and accurate, not only can be found stones, cysts, fatty liver and other common diseases, but also early detection of certain tumors. Affected by the nature of ultrasonic inability to limited ultrasound examination is more suitable for solid organ, such as the liver, spleen, kidney, are generally not suitable for gas-bearing organs (such as gastro-intestinal), and skeletal system.


31. Mammography: women over 40 years of age, check once a year

Breast mammography for breast disease, especially for early breast cancer have a high diagnostic value as an addition to the clinical examination will be outside of the imaging diagnostic method of choice. Family history and other risk factors, using coal from 35-year-old began to be subject to a mammography examination. According to medical advice after the age of 40 due to increase inspections.

32. Bone mineral density: Women aged 45 and older, men older than 55 years: measured once a year

China's population over the age of 60 the prevalence of osteoporosis for women 30% -35%, men 10% -20%. Bone stretch their legs and harm to human health are many, such as causing back pains, body Bianai, kyphosis, and fractures.

33. Pre-production phase calculation: the Last menstrual date or minus 3 months plus 9 for the pre-production period of a few months; days plus 7, the date of birth for the number of pre -

Since each female menstrual cycles of varying lengths, so the calculated expected date of birth and delivery date may be 1-2 weeks of error.

34. Antenatal check: 9 sub-optimal

In addition to trimester of pregnancy to be checked first to determine the outside, since the mid-pregnancy until full-term pregnancy, prenatal testing is about 9 times. General pregnancy 20 weeks -36 weeks to once every 4 weeks; pregnancy after 36 weeks, weekly inspections. 9 times check the time difference is 20 weeks, 24 weeks, 28 weeks, 32 weeks, 36 weeks, 37 weeks, 38 weeks, 39 weeks, 40 weeks. Regular prenatal care is generally nine times, but pregnant women with certain risk factors in terms of, you may need at any time increase or decrease in the frequency of inspections and projects.

35. Pregnancy weight gain should not be more than 15 kilograms

Pre-pregnancy normal weight women, pregnancy can increase 11.25-15 kg body weight. Pre-pregnancy underweight women, pregnancy can increase the weight of 2.6-18 kg. Pre-pregnancy overweight women, weight gain during pregnancy should be a certain degree of control for 6.75-11.25 kg. Weight gain during pregnancy may affect fetal growth rate and body weight. Dirty house too much weight during pregnancy more quickly, a huge children will not only increase the incidence of postpartum weight loss will also increase the difficulty. On the contrary, if the weight is too small, will affect the normal fetal growth and development.

36. Pregnant drug use: 5-10 weeks after stopping the most dangerous drugs

In the conception by the first 2 weeks, a fertilized egg if it received the influence of drugs, there are two possible outcomes: one isMiscarriage; The other one is fertilized self-healing injury, and continues to develop into a normal fetus. Therefore, if the pregnant woman is not careful at this stage were taking the drug can be taken to wait, go with the flow attitude. However, 3-8 weeks after conception (ie, menopause, 5-10) weeks is a critical embryonic stage of organ differentiation and development at this time if the exposure to hazardous substances, teratogenic fetal organs may be so. Since most of the impact of drugs on the fetus are concentrated in the first trimester, at which point a considerable number of pregnant women do not know that he has pregnant, in order to ensure safety, prospective mothers should be ready to stage of pregnancy begin to consider drug safety issues.

37. Full-term births: pregnancy over 37 weeks to 42 weeks maternity leave were not satisfied

Premature: Pregnancy over 28 weeks and 37 weeks between the deliveries were not satisfied. Expired products: pregnancy 42 weeks or more than 42 weeks parturition. 38 weeks pregnant when the production, while not reach the pre-production period (40 weeks pregnant), are also considered full-term.

38. Newborns weight: normal is the 2500-4000 g

Birth weight 4000 grams, saying that a huge children. A huge children will not only increase the rate of dystocia, cesarean section rate, and excessive weight gain during pregnancy would be pregnant women feel discomfort, increased incidence of complications during pregnancy and postpartum to lose the extra weight is also very difficult. Children include low birth weight premature children and small for gestational age. These children because of "congenitally deficient", a lot of complications, perinatal mortality rates. To put an end to this "bigger than a" phenomenon on a regular basis for check-ups, timely detection of problems and timely intervention is very important.

39. Newborns Length: full-term of about 50 cm

Children during the first year after birthHeight GrowthThe fastest annual increase of approximately 25 cm. The growth rate slowed down after the age of 1 year increase of approximately 10 cm. Increase more slowly after the age of two, with an average annual increase of 5 cm. Height in children 2-3 years old formula: Height = Age * 6 +77 cm. If the 2-year-old child's height in one year how virtually no increase should be alert, as soon as possible bring the child to hospital for an examination to exclude inadequate secretion of growth hormone, thyroid dysfunction and other issues.

40. Deciduous teeth eruption: 6 months, the first eruption of a tooth

Teeth in children is generally 6-7 months, may have as early as 4 months, the latest no more than 10 months. A total of 20 deciduous teeth, no later than two years and a half out of Qi, when the permanent teeth of 6-year-old began to grow. November-old baby has not a tooth, or tooth-half years old or more children are not out of Qi is an exception, should pinpoint the cause. Cretinism, rickets, malnutrition in children with teeth later.


41. "To package Days" best treatment period: 4 years old

Correction "to package-day" principle is to eliminate the cause, early treatment to prevent deformity. Foreign orthodontic doctor advocated a four-year-old started treatment "to pack days," until the age of 18. Deciduous issue of "land package Heaven" poses serious threat to children will not only hinder the mouth, face and jaw of the normal growth and development, but also the children of the chewing, pronunciation, social, psychological as well as adverse effects of treatment as soon as possible.

42. Precocious puberty: girls 8 years of age before the start of breast development or menstruation occurs before age 10, boys 9 years of age appeared before the penis, testes increased

In addition to organic disease (brain tumor) precocious puberty caused by primary disease need to be targeted for treatment, precocious puberty is harmful to the child's best Changbu Gao, because sex hormone secretion in advance will allow for early closure bones. In addition, from a social point of view, sexual precocity ventral child will bring about the psychological impact of the child. Nutrient surplus, blind fortification led to the current childPrecociousMore and more important reason. Parents to refrain from fear of children, inadequate nutrition, constant chaos fill kids nutrition, eat indiscriminantly tonic, so that "love as a result of harm."

43. Amblyopia: corrected visual acuity ≤ 0.8

Amblyopia is an eye examination no abnormal lesion, but the corrected visual acuity less than 0.8 of the eye. Amblyopia in patients with non-perfect three-dimensional visual function, unable to carry out fine work. Amblyopia are closely related with age. ,4-6 years of age is generally believed that the best period of treatment, efficacy decreased gradually after the age of 12, an adult may be almost no cure. Since the appearance of binocular amblyopia in children with normal children is no different, difficult to detect abnormalities observed alone and therefore recommends that children over 4 years on a regular basis to the hospital vision for early detection of amblyopia.

44. Cryptorchidism in children: the latest operation not later than 4 years old

Cryptorchid testis is a common congenital anomalies, the patient's side or the testes not descending properly into the scrotum, if early diagnosis and treatment, will result in infertility or testicular cancer and other serious problems. Now advocate early treatment of cryptorchidism should be. Cryptorchidism within 1 year of age should be patient and observe and wait for the natural decline; cryptorchidism after 1 year of age, should first carry out medical treatment, if the effect of the poor may be imposed by surgery. Most experts believe that 1-2 years after birth, cryptorchidism surgery done the best, the latest not more than 4 years of age.

45. Coronary stenosis "70% of interventional therapy to be done to

Is generally believed that coronary artery stenosis 70%, you need to do intervention. If there are significant symptoms, a narrow loss of 60 decibels hearing about wearing hearing aids best

In general, unilateral deafness or mild hearing loss without wearing a hearing aid; hearing loss of 35-85 dB who recommend the use of hearing aids; hearing loss in radionuclide examination 30 times = 1 X-ray film

Check the heart, thyroid, lungs, digestive tract and other diseases often need to use radionuclide inspection is one of the peaceful uses of atomic energy technology, with a certain amount of radiation, many patients and therefore quite worry about the check. In fact, subjects receiving the inspection radiation doses suffered by X-ray film is only 1 / 30, does not have any impact on health

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